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Sustainable design of sports stadiums : case study analysis of stadiums for the Olympic Games 2000 in Sydney, 2004 in Athens and 2008 in Beijing / Sven Schmedes

Schmedes, Sven

Edited by Welsh School of Architecture, Cardiff University. Cardiff - 2015

In the first part of this thesis a review of the subject is presented. A brief history of the development of stadium design in the Olympic context, evolving requirements for staging Olympic Summer Games, the structure of organizations involved, existing literature research and certification methods are summarized. In the second part, the methodology and development of the bespoke research tool based on existing certification systems such as BREEAM, LEED and DGNB is described. Subsequently, case studies for three different stadium types (Olympic stadium, indoor stadium and football stadium) used for the Olympic Summer Games in Sydney (2000), Athens (2004) and Beijing (2008) are analyzed based on literature research, field surveys and interviews. The comparative assessment of each stadium type is conducted with an evaluation matrix in three denominations: urban category, environmental category and social category. In each category two indicators with two respective parameters are evaluated based on a five-point score system. Subsequently the general applicability of the research tool is verified with an example appraisal of Wembley Stadium which was used for the Olympic Summer Games in London (2012). Conclusions are drawn in the third part of the thesis, separately for each of the three denominations urban category, environmental category and social category. The last chapter summarizes recommendations for stadium design in the Olympic context. To ensure a long-term utilization of each sports stadium after the Olympic Games it is suggested that applicant/candidate cities carry out comprehensive feasibility studies in collaboration with an operator to develop a bespoke project brief and business plan for operation of each venue at bidding stage.

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