Evolutions in the physiology of skiing skating and running in the Olympics / Kjell Hausken

Hausken, Kjell

Cross-country skiing, biathlon, Nordic combined, short track speed skating, and speed skating (12+11+3+8+14=48 events), i.e. five of the 15 disciplines in the 2018 Winter Olympics, require participants to reach the finish line in minimum time, while exerting mechanical propulsion power through flat terrain, uphill, and downhill. This article compares distances and times for these disciplines systematically with each other and with running, walking, and swimming in the Summer Olympics.


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